Tag Archives: kernel

Back from Linux Plumbers

I’m back from USA after one week attending Linux Plumbers Conference. This was my first time in LPC, in which I was part of the CoreOS, talking about “From libabc to libkmod: writing core libraries”.

It was a very good experience and I’m glad to meet so many developers, both kernel and userspace hackers. Some of them I only knew from IRC, mailing-lists, etc and it was great time to share our experiences, discuss the current problems in Linux and even fix bugs :-). We seem finally to have reached a consensus on how module signing should be done – the outcome of Rusty Russel’s talk is that he will now start applying some pending patches. There will be no required changes to kmod, except a cosmetic one in modinfo to show if a module is signed or not.

Rusty was also very helpful in fixing a long-standing bug in Linux kernel: a call to init_module() returns that a module is already loaded, even if it didn’t finish it’s initialization yet. This used to be “fixed” in module-init-tools by a nasty hack adding a “sleep(10000)” if the module state (checked on sysfs) is “coming”. I mean “fixed” because this approach is still racy, even though the race window is much shorter than without it. So we finally sat down and wrote a draft patch to fix it. This will probably reach Linus tree in the next merge window.

The above example only seconds what Paul McKenney said on his blog yesterday: “A number of the people I informally polled called out the hallway track as the most valuable part of the conference, which I believe to be a very good thing indeed!” – I was one of the people he informally polled ;-). I’d like to thank all the Committee and people involved in organizing this conference – it was a very great experience.

Finally, you can find my slides below (or download from Google Docs). I think soon the audio will be published. Meanwhile you may enjoy Lennart’s picture when he was a child in slide #5 (during the talk he claimed it’s not him, but I don’t believe – they are too similar :-)).
Continue reading Back from Linux Plumbers

ELC 2012

Hey, this is my feedback of ELC 2012. If you didn’t read the first part, about ABS 2012, you can read the previous post first.

ELC is one of my favorite conferences as I can meet several talented people and have good talks about Linux in embedded devices. This time was not an exception and I enjoyed very much. The main reason I was there was because I was going to present kmod, the new tool to manage kernel modules. But that would be only on the last day of the conference. Let’s start from the beginning.

To open the conference Jon Corbet gave his usual kernel report starting from January 2011 and going on through the events in each month: the mess in ARM, death of the big kernel lock, userspace code in kernel tree (should we put libreoffice there, too?) and so on. Following this keynote I went to see Saving the Power Consumption of the Unused Memory. Loïc Pallard from ST-Ericsson talked about how memory consumption in increasingly important in embedded devices for the total power consumption. We are going from the usual 512 MB on smartphones to 2 ~ 4 GB of DDR RAM. There are some techniques to reduce this the power drained and he presented the PASR framework, that allows the kernel to turn on/off specific banks/dies of memory since not all of them is used all the time. Later on talking to the guys from Chromium OS I realized that this is especially true when the device is sleeping. We may want to discard  caches (therefore use much less memory when in sleep mode) and then turn off banks not used. In my opinion the battery consumption is one of the most important today for embedded Linux devices: I’m tired to have to charge my smartphone every day or every X hours. I hope we can improve the current state by using techniques as the one presented in this talk.

In Embedded Linux Pitfalls Sean Hudson from Mentor Graphics shared his experience while coming from closed embedded solutions to open source ones. Nice talk! I think people doing closed development should see presentations like this: one of the main reasons for failing in opensource is not being able to talk to each other: HW guys not talking to SW guys, NIH, not playing the rules of the communities and therefore having to carry a lot of patches, etc. I’ve always been involved with opensource so I don’t know very well how things work for companies doing closed development, but I do know that more often than not we see those companies trying to participate in communities/opensource and failing miserably. In my opinion one of the main reason is because they fail to talk, discuss and agree on the right solution with communities.

One of the best talks in ELC 2012 was Making RCU Safe for Battery-Powered Devices. Paul McKenney is one of the well known hackers of the Linux kernel, maintaining the RCU subsystem. Prior to this talk I had no idea RCU had anything to do with power consumption. He went through a series of slides showing how and why RCU got rewritten several times in the past years, how he solved the problems reported by community and how things get much more complicated with preemption and RT. He finished his presentation saying that the last decade was the most important of his carrier and that is because of the feedback he got from RCU being used in real life. I’d really love to see more people from Academia realizing this.

The next day Mike Anderson gave a great keynote about The Internet of things.  Devices in Internet are surpassing the number of people connected and soon they will be much more important. It’s a great opportunity for embedded companies and for Linux to become the most important Operating System in the world. Recent news about this are already telling us that 51% of the Internet traffic is non-human (although we can’t classify all of that as “good traffic”). Following his keynote I went to see Thomas Petazzoni from Free Electrons talk about Buildroot. I like Buildroot’s simplicity and from what Thomas said this is one thing they care about: Buildroot is a rootfs generator and not a meta-distro like openembedded. There were at least 3 people asking if Buildroot could support binary packages and he emphasized that it was a design decision not to support them. I like this: use the right tool for the each job. I already used Buildroot before to create a rootfs using uClibc and it was great to see that it was already packaging the last version of kmod before I went to ELC.

In the end of the second day I participated in Real-Time (BoFs) with Frank Rowand. It was great to have Steven Rostedt and Paul McKenney there as they contributed a lot to the discussion, pointing out the difficulties in RT, the current status of RT_PREEMPT patches regarding mainline and forecasts of when it will be completely merged. There were some discussions about “can we really trust in RT Linux? How does it compare with having an external processor doing the RT tasks?”. In the end people seemed to agree that it all boils down about what do you have in your kernel (you probably don’t want to enable crappy drivers), how do you tolerate fails (hard-RT vs soft-RT) and that RT is not a magic flag that you turn on and it’s done: it demands profiling, kernel and application tuning and expertise in the field. People gave several examples of devices using the RT_PREEMPT patches: from robots and aircrafts  in the space to cameras (the Sony cameras given away on the last day were 1 of the examples).

On Friday, the last day of the conference, I was much more worried about my presentation in the end of the day than with other talks. Nonetheless I couldn’t miss Koen Kooi from Texas Instruments talking about Beaglebone. It’s a very interesting device for those who like to DIY: it’s much smaller than its brothers like Beagleboard and Pandaboard and still has enough processing power for lots of applications. Koen was displaying his slides using node.js running on a Beaglebone. What I do like to see though is barebox replacing u-boot as the bootloader. If you attended Koen’s talk on ELCE last year, you know u-boot is one of the culprits for a longer boot. Jason from TI kindly gave me a Beaglebone so I can use it for testing kmod; when I have some spare time I’ll take a look on the things missing for using barebox on it, too.

The last talk of the conference was mine: Managing Kernel Modules With kmod. I received a good feedback from people there: they liked the idea behind kmod – designing a library and then the tools on top of that. I had some issues with my laptop in the middle of my presentation, but it all went well. I could show how kmod works, the details behind the scenes, the short history of the projects and how it’s replacing a well known piece of  userspace tools of Linux in all major desktop and embedded distros. When I was showing the timeline of the project I remember Mike Anderson saying: “tell us when it will be done”. I can’t really say it’s done now, but after the conference we already had versions 6 and 7 and contrary to other releases in the latest versions the number of commits is very small. After 3~4 months the project is reaching a maintenance phase as I said it would. If you would like to see my slides, download it here or see it online below. You can also watch the video of my talk as well as all the others in LF’s video website.

Continue reading ELC 2012

Android Builders Summit 2012

Four weeks ago, from Februart 13rd to Februrary 17th I was at Android Builders Summit and Embedded Linux Conference in San Francisco. I was a bit busy these last weeks so I didn’t have an opportunity to write here about the conferences as I usually do. I was going to do a post about both the conferences, but after writing a little bit I realized it would be very big. So I split in 2 and here is the one for ABS 2012; the other is coming soon.

This was my first time at Android Builders Summit. Since in the end of last year I participated in a project modifying Android internals, I felt it would be really good to be in touch with people doing the same things and learn with them. Before going there I was already surprised that Google was not sponsoring the conference, but there I was astonished that there was nobody from Android’s team and I don’t remember talking to Googlers, too. I don’t know what happened but it would be really good for the next conference if Google could be part of the conference since for the very nature of how they manage the project they are the people pushing the platform forward.

In the first day of the conference Greg Kroah-Hartman, Tim Bird and Zach Pfeffer answered the question “Android and the Linux Kernel Mainline: Where Are We“: it’s done. Well, not totally done, but most of the code needed in kernel is already in mainline: except for some pieces that render your device useful it’s already possible to boot Android userspace with a mainline kernel. I think the main point of this effort is to allow companies and enthusiasts to use features from the mainline kernel and newer versions than the ones available on AOSP. As the diff between mainline and Android’s kernel decreases it’s much easier to deploy an Android device with a different kernel. More details can be found in http://lwn.net/Articles/481661/.

From the other talks I attended on the first day, the one that caught my eyes was USB Device Support Workshop. Bernie Thompson from Plugable talked a bit about the lack of proper support in Android to deal with kernel modules: it’s really hard for device maker companies like his own to have products working on Android. And it’s not because they aren’t committed to developing Linux device drivers but because of the lack of support in Android to easily deal with kernel drivers: either the external device is supported by the company shipping the Android product or there’s no way for example to plug in an external camera and get it to work. Audience was a bit confused saying that that was a Linux problem and some voices telling that in Windows lands that doesn’t happen. Not true. Linux supports more devices that any other operating system in the world, however Android is currently missing some tools to profit from it. After some discussion Bernie prepared some tables with USB devices that people could hack on, get it supported in Linux/Android, etc.

On the second day I attended Real-Time Android, particularly because of my involvement with real-time since I graduated at university and because I was curious about applying it to Android. As I said one of the benefits of  having Android kernel closer to mainline is that it’s easier to do things like this. Wolfgang Mauerer from Siemens applied the RT_PREEMPT patches to Android’s kernel so you could have a real-time embedded system and still use Android’s app. As I was expecting RT would be applied for native applications, not java based ones.

Topics in Designing An Android Sensor Subsystem: Pitfalls and Considerations was advanced talk about Sensors in Android and how one would choose one strategy over another and the tradeoffs between battery life, sample rate,  external co-processor, DIY or license the algorithms used, etc. It was not a talk for the regular Joe doing an app that uses the Android’s Sensors API  (that was what I knew about it) but more for people creating devices that would like to use sensors.

It was a conference different from the conferences I’m used to attend like ELC/LinuxCon: there was very few people who I already knew and I had the feeling that we were talking about a product from someone else, not a product we were helping to develop – instead we were having talks about how to hack a platform we do not own. In general I liked the talks I could attend and talking to people at the corridors. They even gave me some insights for my talk about kmod, later on Friday at ELC. I’ll talk more about it on the next post.

For those wanting to see the slides/videos, Linux Foundation made them available at their site – go on and see for yourselves.

ANNOUNCE: codespell 1.4

codespell 1.4 is out! Nothing really new, just a maintenance release: 1 bug fix and some new entries to the dictionary. See the entire announcement on its mailing list.

As per patches I’m receiving it seems that codespell is being successfully used by opensource projects. I’m glad codespell can help those projects, particularly people who don’t have English as their mother tongue as I don’t. It’s also an opportunity to people starting on a project, as I said in last LinuxCon Brazil.

I’m not submitting patches anymore to Linux kernel myself using codespell because after doing that twice I started to receive a lot of emails from people using get_maintainer script. It’s very annoying to filter the good emails (that were indeed addressed to me) from that that I was in CC just because there was a misspelling that my patch fixed. Since that patch touched 2463 files, it’s very common to have my name in the output of get_maintainer :-(. I’m still trying to figure out how to properly filter that without losing important emails. Any tips (I’m a GMail user)?

Back to codespell announcement, the only missing item in TODO is to be able to separate comments, strings and source code in order to fix misspellings only in the first 2. Nonetheless codespell seems to be doing a good job without that feature and unless someone step in to implement it without impacting the parse time too much, my plan is to keep as is.

Go get it (and package for your distro) while it’s fresh!

ANNOUNCE: kmod 3

Hey, kmod 3 is out. Really nice to finish this release. I was hoping to have it between the holidays, but there were some major bugs pending. It’s nice to see udev from git already using it instead of calling modprobe for each module. Kay reported a hundred less forks on bootup after start using libkmod and libblkid.

It’s nice too receive feedback about other architectures that we don’t have access, too. With kmod 3, sh4 joined the other architectures that were tested with kmod.

Since I’m already doing the announcements to the mailing lists, I’ll not repeat the NEWS here. Just look at the archives if you didn’t receive the email.

Happy new year!

ANNOUNCE: kmod 2

I’m glad to announce the second version of kmod.  I’m sorry for not sending the first version to the mailing lists. Now I’m both writing it here and sending to the mailing list.

I thank very much the feedback received for the first version and that now Jon Masters, the maintainer of module-init-tools, is helping us with kmod and already announced that kmod will replace module-init-tools in future.

I’d like to especially thank Tom Gundersen, Dave Reisner, Marco d’Itri, Jon Masters, Luis Strano, Jan Engelhardt and Kay Sievers who have been extensively testing kmod and helping with compatibility with previous tools. Right now kmod is tested in i686, x86_64, sparcv9, powepc64, s390 and ARM. More testers are greatly appreciated, especially for architectures not mentioned here.

News for this version are (copying from NEWS file):

Some bugs fixed: the worst of them was with an infinite loop when an alias matched more than one module.

  • New APIs in libkmod to:
    • Get soft dependencies
    • Get info from module files parsing ELF
    • Get modversions from files parsing ELF
  • Support to load gzipped kernel modules: kmod can be compiled with support to  gzipped modules by giving the –enable-zlib flag
  • Support to forcefully load modules, both vermagic and modversion
  • Support to force and nowait removal flags
  • Configuration files are parsed in the same order as modprobe: files are  sorted alphabetically (independently of their dir) and files with the same name obey a precedence order
  • New tool: kmod-modinfo
  • kmod-modprobe gained several features to be a 1:1 replacement for modprobe.  The only missing things are the options ‘–showconfig’ and ‘-t / -l’. These  last ones have been deprecated long ago and they will be removed from  modprobe. A lot of effort has been put on kmod-modprobe to ensure it maintains compabitility with modprobe.
  • linux-modules@vger.kernel.org became the official mailing list for kmod

For the next version, we plan to migrate our git repository to kernel.org. Meanwhile, git repository can be found at http://git.profusion.mobi/cgit.cgi/kmod.git/ and packages at http://packages.profusion.mobi/kmod/


Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow

So, in last post I said kmod 2 could be released sooner than expected if there were major bugs. Not as much as a surprise, there was 1: depending on the alias passed to the lookup function we were blocked iterating a list.

It’s now fixed in git tree. Thanks to Ulisses Furquim for fixing it and Dave Reisner for the bug report. We already have some other great stuff implemented so we’ll soon have another release.

Another great news is that now we have the maintainer of module-init-tools (Jon Masters) cooperating with us. We will discuss how the two projects will co-exist/merge. So, for now on the official mailing list of the project is linux-modules@vger.kernel.org.

ANNOUNCE: kmod 1

For some weeks now I and Gustavo Barbieri at ProFUSION have been working on a new library and a set of tools, libkmod and kmod respectively. This is the announcement of its first public release.


The goal of the new library libkmod is to offer to other programs the needed flexibility and fine grained control over insertion, removal, configuration and listing of kernel modules. Using the library, with simple pieces of code it’s possible to interact with kernel modules and then there’s no need to rely on other tools for that. This is a thing lacking on Linux for a while and it’s one of the items in the Plumber’s Wish List for Linux. Quoting it:

provide a proper libmodprobe.so from module-init-tools:
Early boot tools, installers, driver install disks want to access
information about available modules to optimize bootup handling.

We went one step further and not only we are able now to give an API to load and remove kernel module, but also all the other common operations are being added to this API. The first user for this API will be udev. In a recent Linux Desktop (and also several embedded systems) when computer is booting up, udev is responsible for checking available hardware, creating device nodes under /dev (or at least configuring their permissions) and loading kernel modules for the available hardware. In a kernel from a distribution it’s pretty common to put most of the things as modules. Udev reads the /sys filesystem to check the available hardware and tries to load the necessary modules. This translates in hundreds of calls to the modprobe binary, and in several of them just to know the module is already loaded, or it’s in-kernel. With libkmod it’s possible for udev with a few lines of code to do all the job, benefiting from the configurations and indexes already opened and parsed. We’ve been talking to Kay Sievers (udev’s mantainter) and Lennart Poettering (systemd’s maintainer) regarding this and we are looking forward to have udev using libkmod soon.

Example code:

To insert a module by name without any options and strange configurations it’s sufficient to do as following (without treating errors for easy of comprehension – see the documentation for possible errors):

	struct kmod_ctx *ctx = kmod_new(NULL, NULL);
	struct kmod_module *mod;
	kmod_module_new_from_name(ctx, name, &mod);
	kmod_module_insert_module(mod, 0, NULL);


Besides doing the library, we are re-designing the module-init-tools tools on top of the new API we created. With this first version we are already providing compatible binaries for lsmod, rmmod, insmod and modprobe, the last one with some functionality missing. Next versions we plan to fill the gaps with the provided tools and provide all the others like depmod and modinfo.


We try to avoid issues regarding licences: the library is licensed under “LGPLv2 or later” and the tools are under “GPLv2 or later”. There’s still lots of work to be done and places to optimize. We greatly appreciate contribution from other developers.


The API is not set on stone and is going to suffer some changes in future releases as we see fit to finish implementing all the tools. Below is the list of the features already implemented

kmod 1

libkmod provides the necessary API for:

  • List modules currently loaded
  • Get information about loaded modules such as initstate, refcount, holders, sections, address and size
  • Lookup modules by alias, module name or path
  • Insert modules: options from configuration and extra options can be passed, but flags are not implemented, yet
  • Remove modules
  • Filter list of modules using blacklist
  • For each module, get the its list of options and install/remove commands
  • Indexes can be loaded on startup to speedup lookups later

Tools provided with the same set of options as in module-init-tools:

  • kmod-lsmod
  • kmod-insmod
  • kmod-rmmod
  • kmod-modprobe, with some functionality still missing (use of softdep, dump configuration, show modversions)

Following is a rough roadmap for future releases:

kmod 2

  • Provide the API for features missing in kmod-modprobe, namely: dump configuration and indexes, soft dependencies, install and remove commands. Features relying on ELF manipulation will still be missing;
  • Provide all the tools available in module-init-tools. Some of them like depmod may be entirely copied from module-init-tools for later convertion;

kmod 3

  • Provide a single kmod tool that will abstract all the others, accepting commands like “kmod list”, “kmod remove”, “kmod insert”. Distributions may then use symlinks from current tools to the kmod binary and we can kill the ‘kmod-*’ test tools that we are introducing in kmod 1;

We thoroughly test the features implemented in kmod, but like any other software it’s possible to contain bugs that we didn’t find; we may decide to release new versions between the versions above and then this numbers change. Otherwise kmod 2 will already be sufficient for udev to pick it up as a dependency and start benefiting from the fine grained control over its operations with kernel modules.


The repository for this project is located at http://git.profusion.mobi/cgit.cgi/kmod.git/

Package with kmod 1 source code can be downloaded from: http://packages.profusion.mobi/kmod/


Last I’d like to thank Kay Sievers for his support in reviewing code, giving advices and helping to design kmod.

LinuxCon Brazil

I’m back from LinuxCon Brazil, that was held in Sao Paulo on 17 and 18 November. Before the first keynote, ProFUSION was announced as becoming member of Linux Foundation :-)! Our logo is already in their members page.

It was also a great time to talk again to some developers I met in LinuxCon Europe last month and some that were not present there. One talk I really like was given by Eugeni Dodonov about the Intel Linux Graphics stack. It was a good overview of all the graphics stack in Linux, paying attention to Intel’s boards and drivers. Gustavo Barbieri talked about HTML5 and WebKit and other 2 ProFUSION’s employees — Rafael Antognolli and Bruno Dilly — presented “Application Development using Enlightenment Foundation (EFL)”

This time I also gave a presentation entitled “How to become an open source developer”. My focus was on the Brazilian crowd out there, willing to start to contribute to open source projects, looking for a job or just trying to understand why we do open source development. I hope it was useful for them and for you reading this blog, too. So, below are the slides of my presentation:

For those of you who can not see the file embedded above or want the direct link, here it’s in PDF format.

I also talked to some important people regarding a new project of mine. Stay tuned for a new library soon.

Back from Kernel Summit, LinuxCon Europe and ELCE

Last week from 23-Oct to 28-Oct I was at 3 conferences in Prague, Czech Republic, together with Gustavo Barbieri, Gustavo Padovan and Ulisses Furquim: the ProFUSION crew in Prague.

Starting from Kernel Summit, I had the opportunity to join the Bluetooth Summit and participate in the discussions regarding this subsystem in Linux, both in kernel and user space. We had a lot of hot topics to discuss, including the upcoming BlueZ 5.0, Bluetooth 3.0 (high speed), Bluetooth 4.0 (low energy) and I could also demonstrate the work I’ve been doing with the AVRCP profile. I’m glad it received a good acceptance from other developers. Some of them I didn’t know personally such as Luiz von Dentz, Claudio Takahasi, Vinicius Gomes. Others I had the pleasure to meet again like Marcel Holtmann and Johan Hedberg.

(We didn’t discuss only bluetooth related things. We noticed that more than 1/3 of the people there, working in the core of Bluetooth in Linux, was Brazilian and soon we were discussing with Samuel Ortis – a French, maintainer of ConnMan – who is the best soccer player :-).)

Daniel Wagner from BMW also brought up some interesting scenarios of multiple devices connected through Bluetooth in car kits and helmets (like this one): HFP, A2DP, HSP (and maybe also AVRCP?). All of them interacting and working together at the same time. Since the gstreamer conference was also taking place at the same facility we could also discuss with PulseAudio developers. In the end, it seems BlueZ and PulseAudio are working pretty well together, though we still have to polish some rough edges for some use cases like this.

Being at Kernel Summit was a great time to meet developers of other parts of the kernel too, such as Steven Rostetd and Peter Zylstra, with whom I had more contact some time ago when I was working in the Linux scheduler.

When the Kernel Summit was over (on Tuesday), LinuxCon and ELCE were taking off. It was great to have once more these two conferences collocated and being able to attend talks on both of them. There were several talks I’d like to attend but some of them were overlapping. I’m looking forward to see the recorded talks later this year[1]. It would be too extensive to detail each one here, so I’m just detailing some of them that grabbed more attention from me.

Gustavo Barbieri and Sulamita Garcia talked about Demistifying HTML5 and how it can be used to develop Apps. Gustavo focused on the EFL port of WebKit (in which I’m one of the developers ;-)) and the underlying technologies. It seems like the mentality of “let’s do apps in a very high-level language” instead of “providing a native language in a sdk” is coming back. Differently from what happened some years ago, this time maybe it will work out. Only future will show us.

Since this year I got involved with Android and development of the platform, I went to several Android-related talks. Leveraging Android’s Linux Heritage was really good stuff, showing how to replace some parts of the Android platform: bash instead of the I-wanna-be-a-shell that comes with Android by default, putting gstreamer in, optimizing some parts of the code, etc. In the same tune there was another talk entitled Build Community Android Distribution and Ensure the Quality. Interesting (but not surprising) to see how hard is to contribute to AOSP and how Android is much different from other open source projects we are used to.

Another interrelated areas that I have interest in (maybe because I work for a company related to embedded systems :-)) are system initialization, fast boot and development boards (such as Pandaboard). Therefore I attended systemd Administration in the Enterprise and Integrating systemd: Booting Userspace in Less Than 1 Second. The former, given by Lennart and Kay, focused on detailing some systemd features for guys running enterprise servers while in the latter Koen told us about his experience reducing boot time by using systemd in a Pandaboard. In this last talk I also met Jean Christophe, one of the developers of barebox (a bootloader aiming to replace U-Boot). Last time I checked, pandaboard was not in the list of supported boards but I was greatly surprised that now it is. Barebox has the advantages of running with caches enabled, having an architecture much more beautiful and being much faster than u-boot. In summary, IMHO it’s a bootloader done right.

Other interesting talk was Tuning Linux For Embedded Systems: When Less is More, in which Darren Hart gave instructions to reduce boot time and image size in very resource constrained scenarios (he was aiming a rootfs of only 4MB and total boot time under a second). Some key things to know is how to investigate what is not important to the application, what can be removed from kernel/userspace in order to fit the requirements and when to replace, why to replace and what to replace. Last but not least, in Developing Embedded Linux Devices Using the Yocto Project and What’s new in 1.1 David Stewart gave a status quo of the Yocto project. Interesting how the project evolved over this year and next time someone doing embedded systems think about ruling out its own distro from scratch, it would be good to look at Yocto.

I met a lot of other people for whom I apologize not citing their name here. This post would be yet bigger than it already is. I had a really great time their and I hope to continue going to these conferences. And the next one is LinuxCon Brazil, in which I’ll talk about How to Become an Open Source Developer. I look forward to seeing all of you there.


I’d like to thank the Linux Foundation for organizing such a great event and ProFUSION to allowing and sponsoring me to be there.

Side note: the problem is that now I want to do a lot of things in different projects without having time to to: systemd, Linux kernel, BlueZ, pandaboard, barebox, Android, etc :-)


[1] UPDATE: videos have been published – http://free-electrons.com/blog/elce-2011-videos/